This project has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme
(Grant Agreement n. 669194)
(Grant Agreement n. 669194)
This interactive map is one of the outputs of the project PanEur1970s, which received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant Agreement n. 669194).
The PanEur1970s project focuses on East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia in the “long 1970s”.
Our research offers the first historical appraisal of how the ruling elites of these socialist regimes viewed the place and prospects of their countries in an emerging space of pan-European cooperation in the long 1970s, against the backdrop of flourishing East-West dialogue (détente) and globalisation.
Our particular focus is the elites’ debates about how to integrate their country in the world economy, cooperate with Western Europe and deal with the commercial giant next door that was the European Economic Community.
Within each European socialist country, we have mapped and analysed the debate among the elites that had an interest and/or competence in foreign relations and trade and could participate in or influence policy making: the ruling party, relevant branches of the state apparatus, the national central and investment banks, trade organisation managers and experts and academics.
Our research relies on a variety of primary sources originating with these actors. The scientific results of the project are presented in several academic publications, all of which are Open Access. Please visit the PanEur1970s website for links to our publications and to learn more about the PanEur1970s project’s life and team members.
This interactive map is intended to illustrate the pluralistic debate about opening to the West and the EEC which took place within each socialist country in the long 1970s.
It is designed as a free-access, user-friendly tool for humanities and social sciences scholars and students as well as members of the general public who are curious about the subject.
For this reason, the texts presented on the interactive map pages are less formal than academic texts: they have neither footnotes nor references, and almost no jargon, and they summarise the debates without going deep into technicalities. The interactive map texts, however, duly acknowledge each country-dedicated chapter of our PanEur1970s book, where you can look up the details and check our sources.
Although the information contained in the map is not comprehensive, behind the map lies a rigorously built database and procedure for data gathering, which assured precision and consistency of data collection across the team.
We hope that the information we gathered and make available here will be useful for colleagues wishing to explore, for instance, networks of experts, the circulation of ideas within and across these countries or socialist decision-making beyond the role of the party. Should you wish access to the database, you are welcome to contact us at PanEur1970s@EUI.eu
The interactive map is easy to navigate: you can choose a country to explore by clicking on the map or pulling up the country menu on the bottom tool bar. You will be able to go back to the map, jump to information on another country and explore the various elites using the tool bar menus.
For each socialist country we present an overview of the debate at the country level (this is where you find the reference to the scientific publication) and the list of archives that we visited to research the topic.
From the country page you will then have the possibility to explore the debate within the five elite groups mentioned above: party, state apparatus, central and investment banks, foreign trade organisations and academia.
For each elite you will be able to read about its internal debate and its most influential members, and to see a list of relevant documents, some of which are fully accessible.
Finally, by clicking on the carousel, you will be able to learn more about the people who were instrumental in shaping the debate and key documents they wrote.
On the people’s profile pages you will see in particular their “relations”: other people from the ruling elites of the country with whom they were in contact for the purpose of the debate and policy making about relations with the West and the EEC.
Please note that we offer neither a prosopographical study, as this was not the aim of our project, nor a network analysis. You will not be able to see the intensity of the relations (frequency and origin of the contact), the nature of the relationship (in-person meetings or correspondence) or its direction (not all relations are bi-directional, as hierarchy may be present).
- Original idea, conceptualisation, planning and supervision: Angela Romano
- Database design and implementation: HAEU and Deniss Jurockins
- Data entry: Serena Belligoli
- Data gathering: Elena Dragomir, Pál Germuska, Maximillian Graf, Aleksandra Komornicka, Elitza Stanoeva, Pavel Szobi, Benedetto Zacccaria
- Graphic design: BlueBox S.a.s.
- Pictures posted on this interactive map have been kindly provided by:
● Prof. Andras Inotai
● Katalin Nyerges
● AKG database
● Bulgarian National Archives
● Czech News Agency
● European Commission, DG Communication, Audiovisual library
● Interia Encyclopedia
● Media Service Support and Asset Management Fund (MTVA)
● Polish Press Agency